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Rebuilding with Astro

After almost four years of Eleventy, I recently completed a rebuild of this site with Astro.

Why leave Eleventy?

I think that Eleventy is a really neat project and that Zach Leatherman is doing a great job with it. My main reason for wanting to move to a different solution was the inability to use components to build pages.

That may sound silly, but I’ve found components to be a helpful conceptual model for building user interfaces. When I look at a webpage now, I visualize components. When I think about building a webpage, I plan in components. And for my personal site, I want to be able to build in components.

To be fair to Eleventy, there is a plugin to “use Vue”, but the missing features and de-prioritized development make it an unappealing option.

In 2022 and beyond, I don’t want to be limited to templating languages and partials when building pages. I want to be able to use components big and small across the site to compose interfaces.

Why Astro?

I’ve been interested in Astro since it launched and am generally excited by the “framework to build modern websites” trend. Three things stood out the most to be when choosing Astro for this project:

  1. Components-based layouts
  2. Island architecture for interactive articles
  3. Familiarity and complexity


I want to be able to build my user interfaces with components. It’s as simple as that, and Astro enables you to use components from any of your favorite JavaScript libraries.

For this site, I stuck with Astro’s own components, which feel like a combination of stateless React and Svelte. It was super easy to pick up and build all of the layouts and components I needed.

The only real issue that I encounted with Astro components was the scoped styles. Conceptually I love the idea, but in practice it applies styles using the :where() pseudo-class which has 0 specificity. As a result, I frequently encountered instances where my component styles were overridden by global styles.

For an example, the global selector body > main has a greater specificity than the scoped component selector main:where(.astro-S3KS4JBQ). I would expect component styles to override global styles.

If there is a setting to make Astro apply generated classes directly to the element, e.g. main.astro-S3KS4JBQ, please let me know!

This isn’t an insurmountable issue, but I would love to find a workaround (and avoid changing my mental model!).


I previously tried to add interactive elements to my articles through the use of good ol’ HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. And for the use cases that I had, this was usually sufficient. But authoring and maintenance were painful, and the lack of standardization made each interactive a bit of a headache.

What I really wanted was a way to write little self-contained “applets”1 that I could drop into any page/article. And that is exactly what Astro Islands are: “an interactive UI component on an otherwise static page of HTML.”

The best part is: you can author these islands using whatever JavaScript library you want. I’m a big fan of Svelte, and I’m excited to be able to drop a Svelte component into any article that I’m writing.

This counter here? A Svelte component!

And with client directives, you have control over when the component are hydrated on the page.


The above features are great, but I don’t think I would have used a new system if it was more complex than the status quo. That was my favorite part about Eleventy: it used a familiar language to take text files and generate a website.

Thankfully, Astro feels cut from the same cloth. Add a bunch of markdown files to the src/pages/ directory, create a few layouts, and the astro CLI will do the rest. In practice it feels simpler than Eleventy, but maybe that is just a symptom of being more opinionated.

After years working on a site with Eleventy, I found switching to Astro a very confortable transition. And thanks to the new features like components and MDX support, I enjoyed working on the site for the first time in a while.

Cons of Astro

In addition to some of the styling specificity issue mentioned above, there are two other features that I lost in the transtion from Eleventy to Astro:

  1. Line highlights in code blocks. Eleventy provided easy access to the markdown parser and I was able to configure things to my liking with Markdown It. Astro uses remark to parse markdown, and I haven’t found a good way to add line highlights to code blocks.
  2. Detailed RSS feed. Astro does provide a plugin for generating an RSS feed, but the resulting output does not have much detail. I would like to include at least a snippet of the article’s content, but that doesn’t appear to be an option with the plugin.

Wrapping it up

Overall, I’m really happy with the rebuild. It was a good opportunity to evaluate the feature that my site needed and architect it in a way that would be easy to maintain.

Looking forward, I think Astro’s island’s architecture is going to help me create the content that I want to publish. And hopefully that’s good new for everyone.

Happy reading!


  1. Is it safe to reclaim that word from Java yet?

About the author

Sean McPherson is a software engineer for Khan Academy who specializes in web and mobile app development. He lives with his wife, sons, and dog in Pittsburgh, PA.