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Why you shouldn't mutate parameters

When you pass an argument to a function, you can then access it as a parameter within the function.

Value arguments

When you pass a value argument like 2, true, or hello, you have access to that value within the function. As a result, you can mutate it like so:

function double(number) {
  number = number * 2;
  return number;

double(2); // 4
  1. A value, or
  2. A reference to a value?

Mutating parameters

When you pass a variable as an argument, you are handing a reference to the function – not a value. So when the function references its parameter, JavaScript traces the reference chain to the stored value.

Let’s look at an example:

let colors = ["red", "orange", "yellow", "green"];

let warmColors = remove(colors, 3); // 'green' is not a warm color

function remove(array, index) {
  // 🎗 Remember: [] === [] is false
  console.log(array === colors);

What would you expect the console output to be? You might be surprised to see that the log is true. That’s because we passed a reference to colors and not the value.

So if we go on to mutate the array parameter, we will make changes to the value that it and colors reference:

let colors = ["red", "orange", "yellow", "green"];

let warmColors = remove(colors, 3);

function remove(array, index) {
  return array;


The log after running our remove() function shows that colors has been modified:

[ 'red', 'orange', 'yellow' ]
[ 'red', 'orange', 'yellow' ]

About the author

Sean McPherson is a software engineer for Khan Academy who specializes in web and mobile app development. He lives with his wife, sons, and dog in Pittsburgh, PA.